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ABAPMETHODS_ABSTRACT_FINAL - METHODS ABSTRACT FINAL

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METHODS - ABSTRACT, FINAL

Short Reference



Syntax

METHODS meth ... ABSTRACT$|FINAL ...

Additions

1. ... ABSTRACT

2. ... FINAL

Effect

The additions ABSTRACT and FINAL make an instance method abstract or final. They cannot be used in interfaces, only in classes. All instance methods can be declared as abstract except for instance constructors. The addition FINAL can be used in all variants of the statement METHODS.

Addition 1

... ABSTRACT

Effect

Uses the addition ABSTRACT to define an abstract method meth. The addition ABSTRACT is allowed only in abstract classes, not in interfaces. An abstract method is not implemented in the implementation part of its class. To implement an abstract method, it must be redefined in a specific subclass using the addition REDEFINITION. Private methods cannot be redefined and can therefore not be declared as abstract.

Notes

  • Abstract methods can be defined in classes that are either abstract or final, but they can never be implemented and therefore are not usable.
  • Methods in interfaces are abstract implicitly, because interfaces do not contain method implementations.
  • With the exception of the instance constructor, concrete instance methods of a class can also call their abstract methods.
  • Static methods cannot be redefined and the addition ABSTRACT is not allowed in their declarations.


Example

Declaration of an abstract method of an abstract superclass and its implementation in a concrete subclass.

CLASS cls1 DEFINITION ABSTRACT.
  PROTECTED SECTION.
    METHODS meth ABSTRACT.
ENDCLASS.

CLASS cls2 DEFINITION INHERITING FROM cls1.
  PROTECTED SECTION.
    METHODS meth REDEFINITION.
ENDCLASS.

CLASS cls2 IMPLEMENTATION.
  METHOD meth.
    ...
  ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.

Addition 2

... FINAL

Effect

Uses the addition FINAL to define a final method meth. The addition FINAL is allowed only in classes, not in interfaces. A final method cannot be redefined in a subclass. In final classes, all methods are final automatically and the addition FINAL is not allowed. An instance constructor constructor is always final and FINAL can be specified but is not mandatory.

Notes

  • Static methods cannot be redefined and the addition FINAL is not allowed in their declarations.
  • Addition FINAL closes a path of an inheritance tree with regards to the possibility to redefine the method.

Example

The final method get_the_truth of a superclass returns a value, which cannot be changed in a subclass. Method get_opinion can be redefined in a subclass but the displayed subclass prevents the method from being redefined in subclasses.

CLASS cls1 DEFINITION.
  PUBLIC SECTION.
    METHODS:
      get_the_truth FINAL
        RETURNING VALUE(truth) TYPE string ,
      get_opinion
        RETURNING VALUE(opinion) TYPE string.
ENDCLASS.

CLASS cls2 DEFINITION INHERITING FROM cls1.
  PUBLIC SECTION.
    METHODS get_opinion FINAL REDEFINITION.
ENDCLASS.

CLASS cls1 IMPLEMENTATION.
  METHOD get_the_truth.
    truth = `The final truth`.
  ENDMETHOD.
  METHOD get_opinion.
    opinion = `Opinion of superclass`.
  ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.

CLASS cls2 IMPLEMENTATION.
  METHOD get_opinion.
    opinion = `Opinion of subclass`.
  ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.

START-OF-SELECTION.
  DATA(oref) = NEW cls2( ).
  cl_demo_output=>display(
    |{ oref->get_the_truth( ) }\n{ oref->get_opinion( ) }| ).






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